Moo Li-valve li Sebelisitsoeng

Moo li-Valve li Sebelisoang: Hohle!

08 Nov 2017 E ngotsoe ke Greg Johnson

Li-valve li ka fumanoa kae kapa kae kajeno: malapeng a rona, tlasa seterata, meahong ea khoebo le libakeng tse likete tse ka har'a limela tsa motlakase le tsa metsi, libaka tsa pampiri, libaka tsa ho hloekisa, limela tsa lik'hemik'hale le lisebelisoa tse ling tsa indasteri le tsa litšebeletso.
Indasteri ea li-valve e na le mahetla a sephara e le kannete, ka likarolo tse fapaneng ho tloha ho kabo ea metsi ho isa ho matla a nyutlelie ho ea holimo le tlase ho oli le khase. E 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea liindasteri tsena tse sebelisang basebelisi e sebelisa mefuta e meng ea mantlha ea li-valve; leha ho le joalo, lintlha tsa kaho le thepa hangata li fapana haholo. Mohlala ke ona:

SEBETSANG METSI
Lefats'e la kabo ea metsi, likhatello li lula li le tlase haholo mme thempereichara e lula e le teng. Lintlha tsena tse peli tsa ts'ebeliso li lumella likaroloana tse ngata tsa moralo oa li-valve tse neng li ke ke tsa fumanoa lisebelisoa tse phephetsoeng haholo joalo ka li-valve tsa mocheso o phahameng. Mocheso o potolohileng oa ts'ebeletso ea metsi o lumella tšebeliso ea li-elastomers le litiiso tsa rabara tse sa lokelang kae kapa kae. Lisebelisoa tsena tse bonolo li lumella li-valve tsa metsi ho hlomelloa ka thata ho tiisa marotholi.

Taba e 'ngoe ka li-valve tsa ts'ebeletso ea metsi ke khetho ea thepa ea kaho. Lisebelisoa tsa cast le ductile li sebelisoa haholo lits'ebetsong tsa metsi, haholoholo mela e meholo e kantle ea bophara. Ho na le mela e menyenyane haholo e ka sebetsoang hantle ka thepa ea phunyang ea boronse.

Likhatello tseo boholo ba li-valve tsa mesebetsi ea metsi li li bonang hangata li ka tlase ho 200 psi. Sena se bolela hore meralo ea khatello e phahameng ha e hlokehe. Ha ho se ho boletsoe, ho na le linyeoe moo li-valve tsa metsi li ahoang ho sebetsana le khatello e phahameng, ho fihlela 300 psi. Likopo tsena hangata li likanaleng tse telele tse haufi le mohloli oa khatello. Ka linako tse ling li-valve tsa metsi tse nang le khatello e phahameng le tsona li fumaneha libakeng tse nang le khatello e phahameng ka ho fetisisa letamong le lelelele.

Mokhatlo oa American Water Works Association (AWWA) o fane ka litlatsetso tse koahelang mefuta e mengata e fapaneng ea li-valve le li-actuator tse sebelisoang lits'ebetsong tsa mesebetsi ea metsi.

MOTS'ELISI
Lehlakore le flip la metsi a hloekileng a nooang a kenang setsing kapa mohahong ke metsi a litšila kapa likhoerekhoere. Likhoele tsena li bokella mokelikeli le litšila tsohle ebe li li lebisa setsing sa kalafo ea likhoerekhoere. Limela tsena tsa kalafo li na le liphaephe tse ngata tse nang le khatello e tlase le li-valve ho etsa "mosebetsi o litšila" oa tsona. Litlhoko tsa li-valve tsa metsi a litšila maemong a mangata li bonolo haholo ho feta litlhoko tsa ts'ebeletso ea metsi a hloekileng. Heke ea tšepe le li-valve tsa ho hlahloba ke likhetho tse tsebahalang haholo bakeng sa mofuta ona oa ts'ebeletso. Li-valve tse tloaelehileng tšebeletsong ena li hahiloe ho latela litlhaloso tsa AWWA.

LIEKETSI TSA MATLA
Boholo ba motlakase o hlahisoang United States o hlahisoa ka limela tsa mouoane ho sebelisoa mafura le li-turbine tse lebelo le phahameng. Ho ebola sekoahelo sa setsi sa motlakase sa sejoale-joale ho ka hlahisa litsamaiso tsa liphaephe tse phahameng, tse nang le mocheso o phahameng. Mela ena ea mantlha ke eona ea bohlokoahali ts'ebetsong ea ho fehla motlakase.

Li-valve tsa liheke li lula e le khetho ea mantlha bakeng sa lits'ebetso tsa motlakase ho tima / ho tima, leha ho na le sepheo se ikhethileng, li-valve tsa globe tsa Y-pattern le tsona lia fumaneha. Li-valve tsa bolo tse sebetsang hantle haholo li ntse li tsebahala ke baqapi ba lifeme tsa motlakase mme ba ntse ba kenella lefatšeng lena le kileng la busoa ke li-valve.

Metallurgy e bohlokoa bakeng sa li-valve ts'ebelisong ea motlakase, haholoholo tse sebetsang maemong a khatello le mocheso o phahameng ka ho fetesisa. F91, F92, C12A, hammoho le lits'epe tse kopantsoeng tse 'maloa tsa Inconel le li-alloys tse sa hloekang li sebelisoa hangata lijalong tsa motlakase tsa kajeno. Likhatello tsa khatello li kenyelletsa 1500, 2500 mme maemong a mang e le 4500. Mofuta o feto-fetohang oa limela tsa motlakase (tse sebetsang feela kamoo ho hlokahalang) le ona o beha khatello e kholo li-valve le liphaephe, tse hlokang meralo e matla ea ho sebetsana le motswako o fetelletseng oa baesekele, mocheso le khatello.
Ntle le phepelo e kholo ea mouoane, limela tsa motlakase li laeloa ka lipeipi tse tlatselletsang, tse nang le liheke tse ngata, lefatše, cheke, serurubele le li-valve tsa bolo.

Litsi tsa matla a nyutlelie li sebetsa ka mokhoa o ts'oanang oa mouoane / lebelo le phahameng la turbine. Phapang ea mantlha ke hore polanteng ea matla a nyutlelie, mouoane o hlahisoa ke mocheso o tsoang ts'ebetsong ea fission. Li-valve tsa polokelo ea matla a nyutlelie li ts'oana le bo-motsoala ba tsona ba fepelitsoeng ka mesaletsa ea lintho tsa khale, ntle le litloholo tsa bona le tlhoko e ekelitsoeng ea ho ts'epahala ka botlalo. Li-valve tsa nyutlelie li etsoa ka maemo a holimo haholo, 'me litokomane tse tšoanelehang le tlhahlobo li tlatsa maqephe a makholo.

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TLHALOSO EA LITSI TSA MAFUTA
Liliba tsa oli le khase le lisebelisoa tsa tlhahiso ke basebelisi ba boima ba li-valve, ho kenyeletsoa li-valve tse ngata tse boima. Le ha li-gusher tsa oli tse tšelang maoto a makholo moeeng li se li sa khone ho etsahala, setšoantšo se bontša khatello e ka bang teng ea oli le khase e ka tlas'a lefatše. Ke ka hona lihlooho le lifate tsa Keresemese li behoang kaholimo ho phaepe e telele ea seliba. Likopano tsena, ka motsoako oa li-valve le lisebelisoa tse khethehileng, li etselitsoe ho sebetsana le likhatello tse fetang 10,000 psi. Le ha ho le thata ho fumanoa lilibeng tse chekiloeng mobung matsatsing ana, likhatello tse phahameng haholo li fumaneha lilibeng tse tebileng tse mose ho maoatle.

Moralo oa lisebelisoa tsa Wellhead o koahetsoe ke litlhaloso tsa API tse kang 6A, Tlhaloso ea Wellhead le Thepa ea Sefate sa Keresemese. Li-valve tse koahetsoeng ka 6A li etselitsoe khatello e phahameng haholo empa lithemparetjha tse itekanetseng. Boholo ba lifate tsa Keresemese li na le li-valve tsa liheke le li-valve tse ikhethang tsa lefats'e tse bitsoang chokes. Ho bipetsoa ho sebelisetsoa ho laola phallo e tsoang selibeng.

Ntle le lihloho ka botsona, lits'ebeletso tse ngata tse tlatselletsang li na le tšimo ea oli kapa khase. Lisebelisoa tsa ts'ebetso ea ho phekola pele oli kapa khase li hloka li-valve tse 'maloa. Hangata li-valve tsena li entsoe ka tšepe ea khabone bakeng sa lihlopha tse tlase.

Ka linako tse ling, ho na le mokelikeli o senyang haholo — e leng hydrogen sulfide — phuleng ea oli e tala. Boitsebiso bona, boo hape bo bitsoang khase e bolila, bo ka bolaea. Ho hlola liphephetso tsa khase e bolila, lisebelisoa tse ikhethileng kapa mekhoa ea ho sebetsana le thepa ho latela melao ea NACE International MR0175 e tlameha ho lateloa.

LIEKETSENG INDUSTRY
Lits'ebetso tsa liphaephe tsa lisebelisoa tsa oli tsa kantle ho naha le lisebelisoa tsa tlhahiso li na le li-valve tse ngata tse hahiloeng molemong oa litlatsetso tse fapaneng ho sebetsana le liphephetso tse fapaneng tsa taolo ea phallo. Litsi tsena li boetse li na le methati e fapaneng ea taolo le lisebelisoa tsa khatello ea khatello.

Bakeng sa lits'ebeletso tsa tlhahiso ea oli, pelo e matla ke sistimi ea phepelo ea oli kapa ea khase. Le ha e se kamehla sethaleng ka bosona, litsamaiso tse ngata tsa tlhahiso li sebelisa lifate tsa Keresemese le litsamaiso tsa lipeipi tse sebetsang botebong bo sa pheleng ba limithara tse 10 000 kapa ho feta. Sesebelisoa sena sa tlhahiso se hahiloe ka litekanyetso tse ngata tse thata tsa American Petroleum Institute (API) mme se boletsoe mekhoeng e 'maloa e khothalletsoang ea API (RPs).

Ho liforomo tse ngata tse kholo tsa oli, lits'ebetso tse ling li sebelisoa ho mokelikeli o tala o tsoang selibeng. Tsena li kenyelletsa ho arola metsi ho li-hydrocarbon le ho arola khase le maro a khase ea tlhaho ho tsoa molapong oa metsi. Lits'ebetso tsena tsa liphaephe tsa kamora 'Keresemese hangata li hahiloe ho American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.3 liphaephe tsa liphaephe tse nang le li-valve tse raliloeng ho latela litlhaloso tsa li-valve tsa API tse kang API 594, API 600, API 602, API 608 le API 609.

Tse ling tsa lits'ebetso tsena li kanna tsa ba le liheke tsa API 6D, bolo le li-valve. Kaha lipeipi life kapa life tse sethaleng kapa sekepe sa ho cheka li kahare ho setsi, litlhoko tse thata tsa ho sebelisa li-valve tsa API 6D bakeng sa lipeipi ha li sebetse. Le ha ho sebelisoa mefuta e mengata ea li-valve tsamaisong ena ea liphaephe, mofuta oa khetho ea phunyang ke phunyang ea bolo.

LIPIPIPI
Le ha lipeipi tse ngata li sa bonoe, hangata boteng ba tsona boa bonahala. Matšoao a manyane a reng "peipi ea peterole" ke sesupo se le seng se hlakileng sa boteng ba lipeipi tsa lipalangoang tse tsamaeang ka tlas'a lefatše. Lipeipi tsena li na le li-valve tse ngata tsa bohlokoa bolelele bohle ba tsona. Li-valve tse thibelang lipeipi tsa maemo a tšohanyetso li fumaneha ka linako joalo ka ha ho boletsoe ke litekanyetso, likhoutu le melao. Li-valve tsena li sebeletsa ts'ebeletso ea bohlokoa ea ho arola karolo ea lipeipi haeba ho ka lutla kapa ha tlhokomelo e hlokahala.

Hape ho hasaneng tseleng ea lipeipi ke lits'ebeletso moo mohala o hlahang fatshe mme phihlello ea mohala e fumaneha. Liteishene tsena ke lehae la lisebelisoa tsa ho tsebisa "kolobe", tse nang le lisebelisoa tse kentsoeng liphaepheng e le ho hlahloba kapa ho hloekisa mohala. Litsi tsena tsa ho tsebisa kolobe hangata li na le li-valve tse 'maloa, ekaba mefuta ea heke kapa bolo. Li-valve tsohle tse tsamaisong ea lipeipi li tlameha ho ba koung e felletseng (ho bula ka botlalo) ho lumella ho feta ha likolobe.

Liphaepe le tsona li hloka matla ho loants'a khohlano ea phaephe le ho boloka khatello le phallo ea mohala. Litsi tsa khatello kapa lipompo tse shebahalang joalo ka mefuta e nyane ea semela sa ts'ebetso ntle le litora tse telele tsa ho petsoha li sebelisoa. Liteishene tsena li na le li-valve tse ngata tsa liheke, bolo le lipeipi.
Liphaepe ka botsona li entsoe ho latela maemo le likhoutu tse fapaneng, ha li-valve tsa lipeipi li latela li-valve tsa API 6D.
Ho boetse ho na le lipeipi tse nyane tse fepelang matlo le meaho ea khoebo. Likhoele tsena li fana ka metsi le khase 'me li lebeloa ke li-valve tsa shutoff.
Bomasepala ba baholo, haholo-holo karolong e ka leboea ea United States, ba fana ka mouoane bakeng sa ho futhumatsa litlhoko tsa bareki ba khoebo. Likhoele tsena tsa phepelo ea mouoane li na le li-valve tse fapaneng ho laola le ho tsamaisa phepelo ea mouoane. Le ha mokelikeli e le mouoane, likhatello le lithemparetjha li tlase ho feta tse fumanoang mochini oa phepelo ea motlakase. Ho sebelisoa mefuta e fapaneng ea li-valve tšebeletsong ena, leha valve ea plug e hlomphehang e ntse e le khetho e tsebahalang.

LITLHAKISO LE TLHAKISO EA PETRIK'HEMIC
Li-valve tsa ho hloekisa li ikarabella bakeng sa ts'ebeliso ea liindasteri tse ngata ho feta karolo efe kapa efe ea li-valve. Lisebelisoa li na le metsi a mabeli a senyang 'me maemong a mang, mocheso o phahameng.
Lintlha tsena li laela hore na li-valve li hahiloe joang ho latela li-API tsa moralo oa li-valve joalo ka API 600 (li-valve tsa liheke), API 608 (li-valve tsa bolo) le API 594 (hlahloba li-valve). Ka lebaka la ts'ebeletso e boima e fihletsoeng ke bongata ba li-valve tsena, hangata ho hlokahala chelete e eketsehileng ea ts'enyeho. Kabelo ena e bonahala ka botenya bo boholo ba marako bo boletsoeng litokomaneng tsa moralo oa API.

Hoo e batlang e le mofuta o mong le o mong o moholo oa li-valve o ka fumanoa ka bongata mochini o tloaelehileng oa ho hloekisa. Valve e fumanehang hohle e ntse e le morena oa leralla le nang le baahi ba bangata, empa li-valve tsa kotara li nka karolo e kholo ea karolo ea bona ea mmaraka. Lihlahisoa tsa kotara ea kotara tse kenang ka katleho indastering ena (eo le eona e kileng ea busoa ke lihlahisoa tse fapaneng) e kenyelletsa li-valve tsa serurubele tse haelloang ka makhetlo a mararo le li-valve tsa tšepe tse lutseng ka tšepe.

Heke e tloaelehileng, globe le li-valve tsa cheke li ntse li fumanoa li le ngata, 'me ka lebaka la ho tiea ha moralo oa tsona le moruo oa tlhahiso, li ke ke tsa nyamela neng kapa neng haufinyane.
Litekanyo tsa khatello bakeng sa li-valve tse hloekisang li tsamaisa papali ho tloha Class 150 ho ea Class 1500, ha Class 300 e tsebahala haholo.
Lisebelisoa tsa k'habone tse se nang letho, joalo ka sehlopha sa WCB (cast) le A-105 (tse betliloeng) ke lisebelisoa tse tsebahalang haholo tse boletsoeng le ho sebelisoa li-valve bakeng sa ts'ebeletso ea ho hloekisa. Lits'ebetso tse ngata tsa ts'ebetso ea ho hloekisa li sutumetsa meeli e kaholimo ea mocheso oa li-carbon steels tse hlakileng, 'me lits'epe tse phahameng tsa mocheso li boletsoe bakeng sa lits'ebetso tsena. Tse tsebahalang haholo ho tsena ke chrome / moly steels joalo ka 1-1 / 4% Cr, 2-1 / 4% Cr, 5% Cr le 9% Kr. Lisebelisoa tse se nang tšepe le lits'epe tse phahameng tsa nickel le tsona li sebelisoa lits'ebetsong tse ling tse thata haholo tsa ho hloekisa.

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K'hemik'hale
Indasteri ea lik'hemik'hale ke mosebelisi e moholo oa li-valve tsa mefuta eohle le lisebelisoa. Ho tloha ho lijalo tse nyane tsa methapo ho isa mehahong e meholo ea peterolo e fumanoang Koung ea Leoatle, li-valve ke karolo e kholo ea lits'ebetso tsa lipompo tsa lik'hemik'hale.

Likopo tse ngata ts'ebetsong ea lik'hemik'hale li na le khatello e tlase ho feta lits'ebetso tse ngata tsa ho hloekisa le ho fehla motlakase. Lihlopha tsa khatello tse tsebahalang haholo bakeng sa li-valve tsa semela sa lik'hemik'hale le liphaephe ke Lihlopheng tsa 150 le 300. Limela tsa lik'hemik'hale hape e bile mokhanni e moholo ka ho fetisisa oa ho nka karolo ea mmaraka eo li-valve tsa bolo li loaneng le eona ho tloha li-valve tse lekanang lilemong tse 40 tse fetileng. Sephahla sa bolo se lulang se tiile, 'me se koetsoe ke zero, se loketse hantle lits'ebetso tse ngata tsa semela sa lik'hemik'hale. Boholo ba phunyang ea bolo ke karolo e tsebahalang hape.
Ho ntse ho na le limela tsa lik'hemik'hale le lits'ebetso tsa limela moo ho khethoang li-valve tse lekaneng. Maemong ana, li-valve tse ratoang tsa API 603, tse nang le mabota a masesaane le litekanyo tse bobebe, hangata ke heke ea khetho ea lefatše. Taolo ea lik'hemik'hale tse ling e boetse e etsoa ka katleho ka diaphragm kapa pinch valve.
Ka lebaka la tšilafalo ea lik'hemik'hale tse ngata le lits'ebetso tsa ho etsa lik'hemik'hale, khetho ea thepa e bohlokoa. Lisebelisoa tsa defacto ke sehlopha sa 316 / 316L sa tšepe e sa hloekang ea austenitic. Sesebelisoa sena se sebetsa hantle ho loants'a ts'enyeho e tsoang mothapong oa maro a mang a mabe ka linako tse ling.

Bakeng sa lits'ebetso tse ling tse thata tse senyang, ho hlokahala tšireletso e eketsehileng. Limaraka tse ling tsa ts'ebetso e phahameng ea austenitic celik, joalo ka 317, 347 le 321 hangata li khethoa maemong ana. Li-alloys tse ling tse sebelisoang nako le nako ho laola maro a lik'hemik'hale li kenyelletsa Monel, Alloy 20, Inconel le 17-4 PH.

KHAHLANO LNG LE GASI
Ka bobeli khase ea tlhaho ea metsi (LNG) le lits'ebetso tse hlokahalang bakeng sa karohano ea khase li its'etleha hodima liphaephe tse pharalletseng. Ts'ebeliso ena e hloka li-valve tse ka sebetsang maemong a tlase haholo a cryogenic. Indasteri ea LNG, e hōlang ka potlako United States, e lula e batla ho ntlafatsa le ho ntlafatsa ts'ebetso ea khase ea khase. Ho fihlela sena, liphaephe le li-valve li se li le kholo haholo mme litlhoko tsa khatello li phahamisitsoe.

Boemo bona bo hloka hore baetsi ba li-valve ba hlahise meralo ea ho fihlela lipehelo tse thata. Li-valve tsa kotara ea kotara le serurubele li ratoa haholo bakeng sa ts'ebeletso ea LNG, e nang le lisebelisoa tse tsebahalang haholo tse 316ss [celik]. ANSI Class 600 ke siling e tloaelehileng ea khatello bakeng sa lits'ebetso tse ngata tsa LNG. Le ha lihlahisoa tsa kotara ea kotara e le mefuta e tsebahalang ka ho fetisisa ea li-valve, liheke, globe le li-valve tsa ho hlahloba le tsona li ka fumanoa limela.

Ts'ebeletso ea karohano ea khase e kenyelletsa ho arola khase ka likarolo tsa eona tsa mantlha. Mohlala, mekhoa ea karohano ea moea e hlahisa naetrojene, oksijene, helium le likhase tse ling. Mofuta oa mocheso o tlase haholo oa ts'ebetso o bolela hore ho hlokahala li-valve tse ngata tsa cryogenic.

Limela tse arohaneng tsa LNG le khase li na le li-valve tse nang le mocheso o tlase o tlamehang ho lula o sebetsa maemong ana a cryogenic. Sena se bolela hore sistimi e pakang li-valve e tlameha ho phahamisoa hole le mokelikeli o nang le mocheso o tlase ka ts'ebeliso ea khalase kapa kholomo ea condensing. Karolo ena ea khase e thibela mokelikeli hore o se ke oa etsa leqhoa ho potoloha sebaka seo ho pakeloang ho sona, e leng se ka thibelang kutu ea phunyang hore e se ke ea fetoha kapa ea phahama.

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LIHLOOHO TSA MABAPI
Meaho ea khoebo e re pota-potile empa ntle le haeba re ela hloko kamoo e ahoang, ha re tsebe letho ka bongata ba methapo e mokelikeli e patiloeng kahara mabota a eona a majoe, khalase le tšepe.

Ntho e tloaelehileng mohahong o mong le o mong ke metsi. Meaho ena eohle e na le mefuta e fapaneng ea lipeipi tse tsamaisang mefuta e mengata ea haedrojene / oksijene ka mokhoa oa maro a nooang, metsi a litšila, metsi a chesang, metsi a bohlooho le ts'ireletso ea mollo.

Ho latela pono ea pholoho ea moaho, litsamaiso tsa mollo li bohlokoa haholo. Ts'ireletso ea mollo meahong e fepeloa hohle ebile e tlatsoa ka metsi a hloekileng. Hore sistimi ea metsi a mollo e sebetse hantle, e tlameha ho ts'epahala, e be le khatello e lekaneng 'me e behe habonolo mohahong oohle. Lits'ebetso tsena li etselitsoe ho iketsa matla haeba ho ka ba le mollo.
Meaho e phahameng haholo e hloka ts'ebeletso e ts'oanang ea khatello ea metsi mekatong e kaholimo joalo ka ha mekato e katlase joalo lipompo tse nang le khatello e phahameng le liphaephe li tlameha ho sebelisoa ho nyolla metsi holimo. Lisebelisoa tsa liphaephe hangata ke Sehlopha sa 300 kapa 600, ho latela boholo ba moaho. Mefuta eohle ea li-valve e sebelisoa lits'ebetsong tsena; leha ho le joalo, meralo ea li-valve e tlameha ho ananeloa ke Underwriters Laboratories kapa Factory Mutual bakeng sa ts'ebeletso ea mantlha ea mollo.

Lihlopha tse tšoanang le mefuta ea li-valve tse sebelisetsoang li-valve tsa ts'ebeletso ea mollo li sebelisetsoa kabo ea metsi a nooang, leha ts'ebetso ea tumello e se thata joalo.
Litsamaiso tsa moea oa khoebo o fumanehang meahong e meholo ea khoebo joalo ka meaho ea liofisi, lihotele le lipetlele hangata li bohareng. Li na le sesebelisoa se batang se batang kapa se chesang ho futhumatsa kapa mocheso oa mocheso o sebelisetsoang ho fetisa mocheso o batang kapa o phahameng. Lits'ebetso tsena hangata li tlameha ho sebetsana le lihatsetsi tse kang R-134a, hydro-fluorocarbon, kapa maemong a lits'ebetso tse kholo tsa ho futhumatsa, mouoane. Ka lebaka la boholo ba komporo ea serurubele le li-valve tsa bolo, mefuta ena e se e tsebahala ho litsamaiso tsa chiller tsa HVAC.

Ka lehlakoreng la mouoane, li-valve tse ling tsa kotara li kenelletse ts'ebelisong, leha ho le joalo lienjineri tse ngata tsa lipeipi tsa metsi li ntse li its'etleha lihekeng tse otlolohileng le li-valve tsa lefats'e, haholoholo ha liphaephe li hloka li-weld-weld li fela. Bakeng sa lits'ebetso tsena tse itekanetseng tsa mouoane, tšepe e nkile sebaka sa tšepe ea tšepe hobane tšepe e khonahala.

Mekhoa e meng ea ho futhumatsa e sebelisa metsi a chesang ho fapana le mouoane joalo ka mokelikeli o fetisang. Lits'ebetso tsena li sebeletsoa hantle ke li-valve tsa boronse kapa tsa tšepe. Libolo tse lulang li tsitsitse ka kotara le li-valve tsa serurubele li ratoa haholo, leha meralo e meng e ntse e sebelisoa.

LIEKETSENG QHOBELE
Le ha bopaki ba lits'ebetso tsa li-valve bo boletsoeng sengoloeng bona bo kanna ba se ke ba bonoa nakong ea leeto la Starbucks kapa ntlong ea nkhono, li-valve tse ling tsa bohlokoa li lula li le haufi. Ho bile ho na le li-valve enjineng ea koloi e sebelisetsoang ho fihla libakeng tseo joalo ka tse carburetor tse laolang phallo ea mafura ho kena enjeneng le tse ka enjineng tse laolang phallo ea peterole ho kena lipistong le ho tsoa hape. 'Me haeba li-valve ha li haufi haholo le bophelo ba rona ba letsatsi le letsatsi, nahana ka bonnete ba hore lipelo tsa rona li otla khafetsa ka lisebelisoa tse' ne tsa bohlokoa tsa taolo ea phallo.

Ona ke mohlala o mong oa bonnete ba hore: li-valve li hlile li hohle. VM
Karolo ea II ea sengoloa sena e akaretsa liindasteri tse ling moo li-valve li sebelisoang teng. Eya ho www.valvemagazine.com ho bala ka makhasi le pampiri, lits'ebetso tsa metsing, matamo le motlakase oa motlakase, letsatsi, tšepe le tšepe, sebaka sa ho fofa moeeng, moea o futhumatsang moea le ho ritela thepa ea matsoho.

GREG JOHNSON ke mopresidente oa United Valve (www.unitedvalve.com) ho la Houston. Ke mohlophisi ea tlatsetsang ho Magazine ea VALVE, molulasetulo oa nakong e fetileng oa Lekhotla la Tokiso ea Valve le setho sa hajoale sa boto ea VRC. O boetse o sebeletsa Komiting ea VMA ea Thuto le Koetliso, ke motlatsi oa molulasetulo oa Komiti ea Khokahano ea VMA mme ke mopresidente oa nakong e fetileng oa Manufacturers Standardization Society. 


Nako ea poso: Sep-29-2020

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